Molecule Cloning; How it works


Cloning is generally mistaken for a machine in which a person walks into, and after the press of a button and the flash of a few lights, out walks a living being exactly like the "original," in every way.

However, this is just not so. Cloning is more natural. In the normal reproduction of a human being, two cells combine to split into many cells which keep dividing to form a human being. However in this case, the two cell's nuclei (Center of a living cell), contain two completely different combinations of DNA. DNA is in a way, the building blocks of our bodies. It determines our physical properties. e.g, Hair and eye colour, body size, voice, skin and just about every other physical property one can think of.

However, cloning is very much the same process. One cell is removed from the donor (the person who wishes to be cloned.) This is usually done with a small incision into the skin, some blood or even the actual skin may be removed due to its richness in cell content.

Once this has been done, a second reproductive cell is taken from a woman. This is where cloning starts.

The entire DNA, is removed from the second cell's nucleus. Next, a minute amount of DNA is removed from the donor's cell nucleus. After this has been done, the donor's DNA is forced into the second cell's nucleus. Now, the two cells are synonymous as far as genes and DNA are concerned.

The two cells are fused together and a carrier must be found immediately. A carrier is the person who is willing to have the baby. Once a carrier is found, the cells are injected into the woman's uterus, and the cells split to form a baby.

When this baby will be born, it will be the same as it's donor was, but only concerning physical properties. It will in no way behave like the donor did, as long as their environments are not synonymous. This means that the clone must have the exact same events happen to him, as that which happened to the donor from his first day of birth. e.g., If the donor's mother died when he was for example, 6 years old, the clone must have his mother die when he turns six years old on the anniversary of the donor's mother's passing. However, this case is impossible. The clone has no parents. If you followed the process carefully, you will understand that the clone has no real parents, so in result, it would be impossible for him to have his mother die when he turns 6 years old, thus resulting in a different environment.


Cloning; Pros and Cons

In the summer of 1989 , Professor Ian Wilmut, proceeded with a team of scientists to a newly built research centre just off the coast of Ireland. They were there to perform an experiment previously thought impossible; to clone a human being. They would also show the world the dangers of modern technology could pose if not exploited properl y.

Cloning is generally mistaken for a machine in which a person walks into, and after the pull of a lever and the flash of a few lights, out walks an individual hand in hand with a copy exactly like himself in every way. However, cloning is completely diff erent then that. All living beings are composed of cells. Reproduction occurs when two cells with completely different DNA properties, combine to form an embryo which divides to form an individual. DNA is the building blocks of our bodies. It determines physical properties such as hair and eye colour. However in cloning, a cell is taken from the {donor} (the person who wishes to be cloned). Next, a second cell is taken from a woman. The DNA is removed from the second cell and a little DNA from the first cell is forced into the second cell. Now the two cells are synonymous as far as genes are concerned. The 2 cells are fused and the cell splits to form an individual exactly like the donor. The first l iving being to be produced in this manner was a lamb, by Professor Wilmut\rquote s team. The world was astounded. Cloning gave doctors new ideas. For example, if a person was sick or in want of an organ, cloning him would produce an individual with the same blood type and organ format which could be used for transplants. In addition, cloning was thought of as something the world had wanted since the beginning of time; immortality. Granted that only positive points have been illustrated, cloning will seem entirely beneficial. The question might be asked, " Why not clone everybody?" The following will be reasons as to why the world in general disapproves cloning.

1) One of the doctors on Professor Wilmut`s team was recently accused of cloning his daughter. This started a worldwide debate. People started to look at cloning in a new perspective. Industrialised countries condemned cloning as a crime. The first country to disallow cloning was Scotland, the country it was discovered in. As beneficial as it had seemed to them, one could not ignore the fact that cloning breaks up civilisation. The Scottish government realised that if one had the freedom to clone himself, he would be less careful with his life. A person would always know that if he were to become infected with a disease or get hurt, his clone would provide him with the necessary blood or organ. People would start taking risks with their health. This would result in full hospitals, which would eventually lead to many deaths, and a raise in health-care costs. The government did not need this.

2) The second nation to ban cloning was the United States. However, this was not accepted by the public without argument. Research had already begun, and a lot of money had been invested. To answer this, the Government arranged an open debate in Washington. Alt hough a lot of money and research had been invested, the Government could not overlook the fact that cloning was deadly. News had been sent to them via the United Kingdom that one of their cloning experiments had failed. The result of the experiment was a mutated animal which had died soon afterward. Cloning is a very complex process and mistakes are common. The United States was not willing to risk this on a human. If an experiment went wrong, the product would have to suffer a lifelong crisis of possible mutation and disease. To the United States, cloning was more detrimental then beneficial.

3) Many countries began to follow this example and ban cloning. The world in general looked down on cloning because it was morally and socially wrong. Cloning took away a person\rquote s ability to think on his own. A clone would be mostly alone in the world with out any parents. People would expect him to be exactly like his donor. He would be regarded in the same way his donor was. He would have no chance at life. If his donor had been a murderer, people would regard him as a murderer and avoid him. His life had already been liven by his donor.

4) Another and very important point is that people really mistake cloning. They assume cloning will produce someone that will think and act exactly like them. However, this is totally wrong. Cloning only produces someone with the same physical properties as you. It does not necessarily mean he will act like you. For people are influenced half by their genes, and half by their environment as well. For times change, and what may have been taught to you as correct, may be taught to your clone as entirely wrong!

So when exactly will cloning be used on humans instead of animals? Professor Wilmut is confident that it can be done within the next few years. For example, some countries like Russia haven' t banned it yet. And if people are ready, it can take place very soon. And although Professor Wilmut tells reporters that he doesn't feel like Dr. Frankenstein, deep down everyone knows that this is a discovery that the world is just not ready for.